Canoco 5 Gallery

Working with Canoco5

Canoco5 is build around the concept of a project representing related data you have collected within your research project. A project puts together the original data, their multivariate analyses, as well as the graphs visualizing the results.

Following snapshot illustrates the Canoco 5 workspace with an open example project (Spider2.c5p). Project panel at the left side lists defined data tables (on top) and existing analyses (in the lower part) and there are also short-cut buttons to quickly work with the data or the analyses. In the upper right area is the project data notebook, where each of the project data tables can be displayed and worked with, while the lower right area contains an analysis notebook for the currently active analysis. Analysis notebooks display analysis results, with the main results shown in the Summary page seen here.


Data for a project might be either entered within Canoco 5 spreadsheet or imported from Excel format files (both .xls and .xlsx are supported, up to and including Microsoft Office 2013) or from existing Canoco 4.x data files. Individual data tables can be exported in comma-separated or TAB-separated data formats or in the legacy Canoco 4.x data formats. Following snapshot illustrates one step during the import of data from an Excel spreadsheet file. One data table can be imported from one or from multiple sheets of the same file or from multiple spreadsheet files, but multiple data tables can be also imported from a single Excel sheet.

Analysis notebooks also contain graphs created using the analysis results. You can edit these graphs, explore their contents, and obtain specific explanation of the contents using the terms adjusted for your data context.

Analysis notebooks can also optionally show the analysis results (case and variable scores on the ordination axes plus additional statistics), as illustrated below. These scores can be easily copied to other applications, but they can be also explored here (score table rows can be sorted using values in any of the shown columns).

Specialized analyses offered by the Canoco Adviser often provide specialized summary pages in the analysis notebooks, as illustrated in the following snapshot for an analysis performing variation partitioning using two groups of explanatory variables.